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SM 629 European Policy and Practice towards the Roma
Department of Public and Social Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University
with support of the
Curriculum Development Competition, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary
and the Jean Monnet Programme
Please refer to the noticeboard for amendments made during the semester
|Three written AQCI’s||30%|
|Written field visit report||20%|
|Research essay (up to 3,000 words, due 1 May 2006)||40%|
|Attendance and seminar participation||10%|
Students who fail to complete one or more of these four components will be required to take a written test during the regular examination period. The test will cover all compulsory readings and all lecture topics.
AQCI: Argument, Question, Connections, and Implications
For each discussion-cum-seminar three students will be required to prepare a single sheet of A4 relating to ONE article from the reading list for that particular week’s topic in the format of AQCI. All students will be required to pick three ACQI articles from three different weekly reading lists (i.e. one article from each of the three chosen weeks). Although only three AQCI’s per person will be marked, students may wish to prepare one AQCI every week in order to structure their thinking about the topic.
The structure of a written AQCI should be as follows (i.e. you should keep the numbered paragraph structure):
1.CENTRAL QUOTATION. Quote a sentence (or excerpts from linked sentences) from the text that you think is central to the author's (or authors') implicit or explicit argument(s). Always cite the page.
2. ARGUMENT. In a few sentences, state the author's explicit or implicit argument. Be sure to include both: what the author is arguing for, and what s/he is arguing against (if applicable).
3. QUESTION. Raise a question which you think is not fully, or satisfactorily, answered by the text. The question should be a question of interpretation or of inquiry, not simply a question of fact.
4. EXPERIENTIAL CONNECTION. Say, in a few lines only, how the argument confirms or contradicts your own experience or common sense.
5. TEXTUAL CONNECTION. Connect the argument of this text to an argument or point you find in another reading assignment covered in this course or one you have picked up from earlier study at the university or elsewhere. Present a quote from the other text (citing it properly), and explain how the present text's argument contrasts with, contradicts, confirms, clarifies, or elaborates the other text's argument or point.
6. IMPLICATIONS. Lay out what this argument (#2 above) implies for understanding or improving society, relations between individuals, or groups (e.g. ethnic, national, etc.) or any facet of social or cultural reality (a few sentences only).
AQCIs should not exceed one typed page. They should be typed or word-processed, proofread and printed with the same degree of care as essays.
Written field visit report
Students are required to produce a short report (one page) from their participant observation notes and to be prepared to share it with the rest of the class. Reports should be e-mailed to firstname.lastname@example.org by 4th April 2006.
Students are required to prepare a research essay of up to 3,000 words on a topic of their choice relevant to the issues covered in this course. Your topic must be approved by Laura beforehand. Approval should be sought by E-mailing Laura the suggested title and bibliography of at least three items (e.g. books, articles, webpages) well in advance of the deadline. Essays should be e-mailed to email@example.com by 1st May 2006.
One of the aims of our course is to help students develop critical thinking skills. Thus in order to receive high grades, you will need to follow these guidelines for essay preparation:
Structure and organisation
· “Every essay should have a beginning, a middle, and an end” or “Say what you are going to say, say it and then say what you have said” area all sound pieces of advice. The introduction to an essay is crucial, and should set the scene for the argument to follow. The overall structure of the essay will vary according to the topic you choose, and how you decide to tackle it. You will certainly need to develop a clear line of argument. The conclusions should draw out the results of your analysis.
· As a preliminary exercise you should identify the different (and competing) viewpoints that exist on the particular topic. Then ask: “Do I know any writers whose arguments cover any of the parts of this?” If this is not immediately clear, then try asking first: What are the key debates here? Who has written on this topic?”
· When you are clear which arguments need discussion, try asking: “What would be a logical order in which to set all this out so that it forms a continuous argument?” At this point you should also decide what point of view you want to take. An essay is not merely a summary of what others have said. You need to show the reader that you have understood the arguments and formulated your own position.
· Then summarise all this in an introduction – normally a first or second paragraph saying: (a) why the question/issue/problem arises, (b) how you will answer it, (c) what the argument will be.
Sources and referencing
ESSAY CHECK LIST
As well as re-reading these guidelines, you should ask yourself these questions before submitting written work:
1. Do all parts of the essay contribute to a resolution of the question asked of you?
2. Does the essay take the form of an argument or is it a mere narrative devoid of explanation?
3. Is the structure clear? Is it ordered in a logical fashion so that readers are left in no doubt as to the nature of the argument being developed?
4. Are you sure that you have understood the issue? What subsidiary questions are implicit in the broad problem? Have you satisfactorily defined important terms and concepts?
5. Have you included an alphabetical bibliography of all sources consulted (listing author(s), title of article or book, where relevant name(s) of author(s) of book, title of book or name of journal, publisher and place and date of publication)?
6. Does the essay contain footnotes/endnotes and do they adequately show the sources on which you have drawn? (footnotes/endnotes should be given for evidence used to support your argument; statistics; direct (preferably primary) quotations; facts that are not common knowledge; and ideas, theories, conclusions and explanations that are not your own; use either the Harvard (author-date) or Chicago style for citing sources in the text. For referencing using these two styles see e.g. the following websites, respectively:
Late submission: Extensions are granted only in cases of certified medical need or other dire circumstances and should be sought from Laura Laubeova during her office hours or, if impossible, via E-mail. Those late essays for which extension was not granted are penalized 1% for each workday late (i.e. if you are 10 days late, you will loose an entire grade, thus you get a B for an essay which would deserve A if it was on time, etc.)
Standardized marking procedure
All written work will be graded using standard marking sheets to ensure consistency and fairness. The sample sheets can be found on the course website (see below) under the heading “Assessment”.
Rewrites policy: As a part of our aim to help students develop critical thinking and written communication skills, students will have the opportunity to rewrite their AQCIs and essays if they are not happy with their grade but only if they submit them at the latest one week in advance of the official deadline.
Attendance and seminar participation
All students are expected to be fully familiar with every week’s required readings and bring to class their own considered questions and reactions to the material. The seminar discussion is intended to enable you to develop your understanding of the readings and to exchange ideas with others and your attendance and participation in the seminar will be reflected in your grade.
Quiz questions will be submitted to students on a regular basis during the course to check whether students completed assigned required readings for the given week. Students will be expected to reply in written to one or two open ended questions in each quiz. These questions may also serve as discussion topics therefore students should be prepared to argue orally as well.
All relevant course materials, including this syllabus, can be found on the course website: http://roma.fsv.cuni.cz which will be updated weekly. Majority of lectures will be delivered in the form of Power Point slide presentations which will also be placed on the website for your convenience.
The reader contains all required readings listed below. A sufficient number of copies of the readers will be placed in the University library study room in Jinonice. Several copies of all optional readings listed below will also be placed on a reserve shelve in the University library study room and can be photocopied there. Note that a number of required and optional readings are also available through the World Wide Web (as indicated). Additional materials can be obtained from the lecturers or are to be found in the library.
All required and optional readings can also be accessed on-line via our password-protected site http://romaonline.fsv.cuni.cz. Please see Laura for the username and password.
1. General background
Week 1 Introduction to the course and terminology
This introductory lecture provides a background framework for the course in terms of the key terminology, core issues in the area of Romani studies, and the need for an interdisciplinary approach.
Week 2 The Romani community (history, culture, social and political organisation)
This lecture explains the current social predicament of Roma people from an historical perspective. It takes into consideration that during the centuries Gypsies have formed an intergroup ethnic community which has no parallel among other European nations. We define the "intergroup ethnic community" as a set of groups and subgroups and we will try to learn about their culture, values, family structures, and political organisation and movement, etc.
& 2.1 Marushiakova, Elena and Vesselin Popov (2001). “Historical and ethnographic background: Gypsies, Roma and Sinti.“ In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 33-53.
& 2.2 Liegeois, Jean-Pierre (1994). Roma, Gypsies, Travellers. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, pp 29-42 (Ch. 2: Populations).
& 2.3 Kenrick, Donald, Clark, Colin (1999). Moving On. The Gypsies and Travellers of Britain. University of Hartforshire Press, Hatfield, 26 -30.
& 2.4 Fraser, Agnus (1995). The Gypsies, Oxford: Blackwell, pp.10-32 (Origins).
& 2.5 Okely, Judith (1983). The Traveller – Gypsies. Cambridge: CUP, pp.1-27 (Chapter 1: Historical categories and representations).
& 2.6 Iliev, Ilia (1997). “Somebody like you: images of Gypsies and Yoroks among Pomaks (Bulgarian Muslims)” in Acton, Thomas (ed) Gypsy politics and Traveller identity. Hatfield: UHP, pp.54-60.
2. Policies towards the Roma
Week 3 Overview of European policy on Roma
International and European human rights instruments have had an important impact on the formulation and implementation of policies towards the Roma. This lecture emphasises on the role of the Roma in policy-making at the international as well as local levels. It pays special attention to international organisations.
& 3.1 Kovats, Martin (2001). “The Emergence of European Roma Policy.” In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 93-116.
& 3.2 Guglielmo, Rachel and Waters, Timothy William: “Migrating Towards Minority Status: Shifting European Policy Towards Roma”. In JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies. Vol. 43. Issue 4. November 2005, pp. 763–86, http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/toc/jcms/43/4.
& 3.3 Farkas, Lilla (2003). “Will the Groom Adopt the Bride's Unwanted Child? The Race Equality Directive, Hungary and its Roma.“ Roma Rights 1-2 (2003). http://lists.errc.org/rr_nr1-2_2003/noteb4.shtml.
& 3.4 Ringold, Dena et al. (2003) Roma in an Expanding Europe. Breaking the poverty cycle. Executive Summary. A World Bank Study, June 2003. www.worldbank.org/eca/roma.
& 3.5 UNDP (2003). Avoiding the dependency Trap. The Roma in Central and Eastern Europe, UNDP. (Summary or any of the 8 chapters) http://roma.undp.sk.
& 3.6 Klimova-Alexander, Ilona (2005). The Romani Voice in World Politics: The United Nations and Non-State Actors (Aldershot: Ashgate), Chapter 3: Romani Issues at the UN.
& 3.7 European Commission (2004). The Situation of Roma in an Enlarged European Union. http://www.errc.org/db/00/E0/m000000E0.pdf.
Week 4 International human rights norms and policy formation towards the Roma
Human rights discourse and politics have changed the way Roma have been treated by the state. The first attempts to use human rights discourse to achieve policy change towards the Roma date back to the 1970s, though the development towards human rights objective in policy making took on more significant pace, similarly as in other human rights issues, only during the 1990s.
This lecture devotes attention to the shift in the context of policy towards the Roma - from defining Romani policy in terms of solving the ‘gypsy problem’ to understanding that Romani policy is an issue of human rights or ‘Roma Rights’. International norms to which the Central and Eastern European (CEE) governments adhered enthusiastically at the beginning of the 1990s began to work in the Romani policy milieu only after significant effort was exerted on these issues by transnational organisations, human rights activists, some governments, donors and, consequently, mushrooming number of NGOs, working on Romani issues.
Until the end of 1999, virtually all CEE governments showed hostility towards the concept of Roma Rights. By June, 2003, at the Open Society Institute, European Commission and World Bank conference, entitled ‘Roma in the Expanding Europe’, held in Budapest, Hungary, a number of the same states showed, not only understanding of the concept of Roma Rights, but adopted the language of Roma Rights as their own - language carefully crafted by the European Roma Rights Center, a public interest law organisation, active in the field since 1996, and a number of Romani activists over the decade.
& 4.1 Sobotka, Eva (2004). Human Rights and Policy Formation towards Roma in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. Tel Aviv: Stephen Roth Institute.
& 4.2 Vermeersch, Peter (2003). “EU Enlargement and Minority Rights Policies in Central Europe: Explaining Policy Shifts in the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland. “ Jemie Special Focus, 2003, Issues 1,
& 4.3 Cahn, Claude (2004). “The Names.“ Roma Rights 1, 5-6. http://www.errc.org/Romarights_index.php
& 4.4 Lee, Ronald (2004). “What is Roma Rights?” Roma Rights 1, 33-41.
& 4.5 Sobotka, Eva. “Crusts from the table: Policy formation towards Roma in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. “ Roma Rights, 2001b, 6, (2-3). http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1698.
& 4.6 Sobotka, Eva (2003). “Roma, Public Policy and Ethnic Mobilisation in National and Transnational Context.” Paper presented to the 53rd Annual Conference of the Political Studies Association (University of Leicester UK, 15-17 April), http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/2003/Eva%20Sobotka.pdf.
& 4.7 Vermeersch, Peter (2001). “The Roma in domestic and international politics: an emerging voice?” Roma Rights, no. 4: 5-13. http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1274.
& 4.8 The Romani movement: what shape, what direction?, Roma Rights, no. 4 (2001). http://www.errc.org/cikk.php?cikk=1292.
Week 5 The relationship between Romani identities, ethnopolitics and academic and political discourses
This week we will discuss the process of contemporary transformation of Romani identities within the framework of recent European policies concerning Roma, illustrating these trends by Czech-specific examples. While the practical effect of various European policies on the material, legal and social-political conditions of Roma has already been widely studied, its impact on the Romani identity formation which we understand as an interactive process remains largely neglected. Nicolae Gheorghe’s concept of ‘ethnogenesis’, understood in a slightly altered way as a conscious attempt toward achieving for the Roma the accepted status of a politically organized, non-territorial (transnational), ethnic-national group, will be taken as a starting point. We will examine to what extent the existing European policies facilitate Romani ‘political nationalism’ and to what extent they contribute to the establishment of a common space in which people of different ethnicity could co-operate in solving their problems, without allowing the differences between them to become the predominant issue which would exclude communication.
In other words, we will focus on whether, within the framework of European policies, Roma can be — to follow Gheorghe once again — ‘a political people in the Greek sense of this term’, which means the members of a polity, who share political membership, and whose identity is defined in a legal, not ethnic, sense. Influential competing claims of Czech scholars such as anthropologists and ‘Romologists’ will be presented, some of them supporting the Romani ethno-national project by imagining ‘tradition’ and broad cultural unity as a basis of community, other strongly opposing such views in the social-constructivist manner. The principal question is whether the actual, non-romanticised traditional Romani culture and social organisation are compatible with the formation of polity and whether they provide sufficient legitimation for the potentially self-proclaimed (trans)national political representation. We will also emphasize the imperative to distinguish between the discursive and institutional tools and objectives of (a) nation-building project and (b) the project of social inclusion of the Roma, since conflation of these notoriously leads to unsatisfactory and misinterpreted results.
To this end we will review the list of the components of Romani ethnicity, including ‘descent, ancestry, kinship and marriage patterns, language, social organisation, taboos, political organisation, employments and economic organisation, nomadism, codes of morality and…a particular state of mind’ (Mayall 2004: 220) to see which of them, apart of being intellectually constructed by both Romani and non-Romani intellectuals, may have now become ‘politically (re)constructed’ by Romani activists to serve as instruments of Romani politics.
& 5.1 Mayall, David (2004). Gypsy Identities 1500-2000. From Egipcyans and Moon-men to the Ethnic Romany. London and New York: Routledge. Chapter 8: Constructing the ethnic Gypsy. Themes and Approaches.
& 5.2 Barany, Zoltan (2002). The East European Gypsies. Regime Change, Marginality, and Ethnopolitics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 7: The International Dimension.
& 5.3 Mirga, Andrzej and Nicolae Gheorghe (1997). The Roma in the Twenty-First Century: A Policy Paper. Princeton: Project on Ethnic Relations.
& 5.4 ERRC (2002). “In Search of a New Deal for Roma, ERRC Interview with Nicolae Gheorghe.“ In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 197-205.
& 5.5 ERRC (2004). “Fighting for the Rights of Roma – A Productive Effort in the General Struggle for Human Rights, interview with Nicolae Gheorghe. “ Roma Rights 1, 2004, 33-41.
& 5.6 Kawczynski, Rudko (1997). “The Politics of Romani Politics.“ Transition. September 1997. 24-29. http://www.geocities.com/~patrin/politics.htm
Week 6 Anti-discrimination and educational policies and issues of racism
Education is an area that well reflects society’s attitudes and behaviour towards marginalized groups. Segregated schools, unbalanced curriculum content, biased teaching materials, teachers’ expectations and attitudes, paternalistic policies and practice, together with public opinion towards minority schooling, all contribute to maintaining the status quo and marginalisation of the Roma. In this lecture, we will explore the management of change from exclusion and assimilation to multiculturalism and inclusion in educational practice as well as issues of racism (its forms, causes and denial) and definitions of direct and indirect discrimination and victimisation.
& 6.1 Petrova, Dimitrina (2002). “The Denial of Racism.“ In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 208-224.
& 6.2 Hancock, Ian (2000). “The Consequences of Anti-Gypsy Racism in Europe” in Other Voices. The (e)Journal of Cultural Criticism, v. 2, n.1 (February 2000) http://www.othervoices.org/2.1/hancock/roma.html. Also consult: http://www.erionet.org/Antigypsyism.html.
& 6.3 Cahn, Claude, Chirico, David, et al.(2002). “Roma in the educational systems of Central and Eastern Europe”. In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 71-85.
& 6.4 The ERRC letter to Dr. Petra Buzková of 26 March 2003.
& 6.5 Liegeois, Jean-Pierre (1998). School Provision for Ethnic Minorities: The gypsy paradigm. 175-198 (Pedagogy).
& 6.6 Laubeová, Laura (2002). “Inclusive School - Myth or Reality”. In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 86-95.
& 6. 7 ERRC (1999). A special remedy. Roma and schools for the mentally handicapped in the Czech Republic, (chapter 3: Roma and schooling in Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia), pp. 15-21, http://errc.org/publications/reports/.
The aim of our Friday field visit is to conduct an elementary research in a chosen Romani community in the Czech Republic. Since many Roma are often partially illiterate and distrustful, it would be very difficult to conduct typical sociological research based on questionnaires or structured interviews. We will thus use the method of participant observation. We will discuss and analyze the results of the Friday research (week 6) during the class in week 7. The field trip will include a visit to a School in Prague 5 with 98% of Romani children where we can talk to the teachers, Romani teacher assistants, Romani parents, and kids. Then we will move to the local community center.
& 7.1 Hancock, Ian (2002). We are the Romani people. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, pp. 103-110 (”How to interact with Romanies: Some suggestions”).
& 7.2 Okely, Judith (1999).”Writing Anthropology in Europe: an example from Gypsy research.” In Folk 41, pp. 55-75.
Week 8 Policy case study – The Decade of Romani Inclusion
The Decade of Romani Inclusion, 2005-2015, is an initiative adopted by eight countries in Central and Southeast Europe, and supported by the international community. An action framework for governments, the Decade will monitor progress in accelerating social inclusion and improving the economic and social status of Roma across the region. Since participation of Romani representatives and civil society organizations is a core value of the Decade, this lecture will be delivered by one of the representatives of the Czech Romani civil society who has been involved in this process from the start.
& 8.1 Consult www.romadecade.org
& 8.2 Consult www.worldbank.org/roma
& 8.3 Templer, Bill (2006). Neoliberal Strategies to Defuse a Powder Keg in Europe: the "Decade of Roma Inclusion" and its Rationale, New Politics 40, Vol X, No4, Winter 2006, http://www.wpunj.edu/~newpol/issue40/Templer40.htm.
Week 9 Romani migrations and their impact on policy-making
Considering the deepening social exclusion and marginalization of Roma in Central Europe one can expect that regardless of the ongoing globalization, European integration and improvement of economical situation in Central European countries, the “scissors” between the majority and the Roma will further open. Migration of Roma from Central European countries can be viewed as a result of Roma exclusion from society after 1989, a change that forced the Roma to the bottom of the social structure. The lecture offers an overview of the failure of Romani integration, resulting in emigration. It focuses on three main reasons for Romani emigration:
1. Degradation of the socio-economic status of members of the so-called Romani middle class; obstacles to upward mobility for children of these people; and finally, a decline in the degree of integration into particular local communities that this ‘class’ has already achieved;
2. Attitudes on the part of a certain group within the Romani minority that are characteristic of an ‘underclass’; and
3. Distrust of non-Romani institutions and organizations, which leads to disrespect of the rules and principles that are in place in those institutions and organizations.
The lecture will focus on emigration of Czech and Slovak Roma to Canada and later to EU countries as well as response of those receiving countries
& 9.1 Cahn, Claude - Vermeersch, Peter (2000). “The Group Expulsion of Slovak Roma by the Belgian Government: A Case Study of the Treatment of Romani Refugees in Western Countries.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 13, no. 2, Spring-Summer 2000, pp. 71-82.
& 9.2 Matras, Yaron (2000). “Romani migrations in the Post- Communist Era.” Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 13, no. 2, Spring-Summer 2000, pp. 32-50.
& 9.3 Klimova, Ilona and Alison Pickup (eds.) (2003), “Romani Migrations: Strangers In Everybody’s Land? Further Reviewed,” Special Issue of the Nationalities Papers, vol. 31, no. 1.
3. Country studies
Week 10 Central Europe -- case study Czech Republic (Background, Policy and Practice)
During his time in office, Václav Havel, the former President of the Czech Republic, stated that ‘the treatment of Roma is a litmus test of democracy.’ While under the communism regime the Roma were subjects to assimilation, 1989 brought some hopes for their integration. However, these hopes were quickly dispersed as the Roma were the first to suffer from the negative effects of a nascent market economy (unemployment, exclusion, racism as an expression of freedom of speech, etc). Only after the emigration of Roma to Canada in 1997 and related international measures and criticism, the Czech government started to acknowledge the problem. This lecture explores in detail the role of different actors, including NGOs, in the process of policy formulation and implementation in the Czech Republic.
& 10.1 Guy, Will (2001). “The Czech lands and Slovakia: another false down?” In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 285-332.
& 10.2 Powel, Chris (1997). “Razor blades amides the velvet” In: Acton, Thomas (ed) (1997) Gypsy politics and Traveller identity. Hatfield: UHP, pp. 90-99.
& 10.3 Marden, Matthew D. (2004) ) “Return to Europe? The Czech Republic and the EU's influence on its treatment of Roma”. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law. 10/1/2004.
& 10.4 Laubeová, Laura (2001). ”The Fiction of Ethnic Homogeneity: Minorities in the Czech Republic” in Bíró, A.M. and Kovács, P (eds) Diversity in Action, Budapest. LGI/OSI, pp.47-73.
& 10.5 Schlager, Erika (2006) Helsinki Commission article: European Court; Czech Desegregation Case. Roma Daily News. 22 February 2006. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Roma_Daily_News/message/4498.
& 10.6 Kovats, Martin (2001). “Hungary: politics, difference and equality.” ?” In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 333-350.
Week 11 Western Europe -- case study UK (Background, Policy and Practice)
The United Kingdom has had one of the most progressive race relation legislation since mid-1970s, however, the situation of the Roma and Gypsies has not started to be satisfactorily addressed until recently. The Roma in Western Europe, traditionally one of the most marginalized and excluded groups that managed to resist assimilation, seem to be more excluded though more confident than in Central Europe.
& 11.1 Morris and Clements (1999). Gaining Ground: Law reform for Gypsies and Travellers, UH Press, pp. 59-64 and 69-71 (Over-arching issues).
& 11.2 Save the Children Fund (2001). Denied a Future? Volume 2. http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/temp/scuk/cache/cmsattach/649_dafvol2.pdf. 214-220 and 283-288.
& 11.3 Lee, Ronald (2000). “Post-Communism Romani Migration to Canada. In Ilona Klimova and Alison Pickup (eds), Cambridge Review of International Affairs. Volume XIII/2. Spring/summer 2000, pp. 51-70.
Week 12 Eastern Europe -- case study on former Yugoslavia (Background, Policy and Practice)
The whole region of ex-Yugoslavia underwent enormous changes at the end of the last century. The effects of these changes on different social and economic levels were numerous and affected various ethnic groups differently. This lecture focuses on the Romani ethnic minority in the region. It starts with a brief account of its situation in the united multiethnic state during socialism and goes on to explain how it was affected by the recent wars following the break-up of the multiethnic state, finishing with an overview of the current situation in individual countries.
& 12.1 Kenrick, Donald (2001). "Former Yugoslavia: A patchwork of destinies." In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press, 405-425.
& 12.2 Reindl, Donald F. (2002). The Problems of Slovenia’s Roma. 8 March 2002. RFE/RL Balkan Report Vol.6, No.12. Reprinted by Centre for South East European Studies, SEE Security Monitor: Slovenia. http://www.csees.net/?page=news&news_id=854&country_id=7
& 12.3 ERRC (2003). Profile of One Community: A Personal Document Survey among the Romani Population of Kumanovo, Macedonia. Narrative project report of the Romani organisation Roma Community Center DROM. http://lists.errc.org/rr_nr3_2003/noteb3.shtml.
& 12.4 ERRC (2004). The Non-Constituents: Rights Deprivation of Roma in Post-Genocide Bosnia and Herzegovina. Country Report Series, No. 13, February 2004. http://www.errc.org/db/00/06/m00000006.pdf.
& 12.5 Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe - Southeast Europe (CEDIME-SE, 2000). Minorities in Southeast Europe: Roma of Macedonia, December 2000. http://www.greekhelsinki.gr/pdf/cedime-se-macedonia-roma.doc.
& 12.6 ERRC (1998). A Pleasant Fiction: The Human Rights Situation of Roma in Macedonia. Country Report Series, No. 7, July 1998. http://www.errc.org/db/00/06/m000000011.pdf.
& 12.7 Foszto, Laszlo and Marian Viorel Anastasoaie (2001). “Romania: representations, public policies and political projects. “ In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 351-369.
& 12.8 Marushiakova, Elena and Vesselin Popov (2001). “Bulgaria: ethnic diversity – a common struggle for equality. “ In Guy, ed. Between Past and Future: the Roma of Central and Eastern Europe. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. 370-388.
& 12.9 Russinov, Rumyan (2002). “The Bulgarian Framework Programme for Equal Integration of Roma.“ In Cahn, Claude (ed.) Roma Rights: Race, Justice and Strategies for Equality. Amsterdam- New York: IDEA. 185-196.
Week 13 Conclusion/Review
 The course deals with a variety of populations who are often lumped under the umbrella term Roma in both political and academic discourses. While the course emphasises the heterogeneity of Romani, Gypsy and Traveller communities (as will be explained in the introductory lectures), we do use the umbrella term here out of convenience, as a short-hand.
 Where not stated otherwise, lectures will be delivered by Laura Laubeová.
 This method was developed by Michael Stewart and we thank him for allowing us to use it.
 Adopted from Notes on Essay Preparation by Dr Helen Pringle from the University of New South Wales.
You can download or print the PDF version of this syllabus here.
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